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There are three main coffee growing regions: Africa/Arabia, Indonesia, and Central/South America. In the broadest possible terms, Africans tend to have a bright, fruity or citrus-like acidity, Indonesians tend to have a lot of body, with some earthiness or spiciness, and not very much acidity, and Centrals tend to have a bright, clean acidity and a medium body.
Needless to say, there is considerable variance in the coffee crop of any producing country.
A nice Guatemala Strictly Hard Bean (SHB) has a bright, clean acidity and a medium body, and sometimes just a hint of chocolate. It can take a lot of heat in the roasting, and fulfills a role in blends similar to Costa Rica SHB, mainly to give it the top-end bright acidity.
A nice Costa Rica SHB has a bright, clean acidity and a medium body, and sometimes just a hint of chocolate. It can take a lot of heat in the roasting, and fulfills a role in blends similar to Guatemala SHB, mainly to give it the top-end bright acidity.
An under-rated coffee, a good Mexico has low acidity, medium body, and a heavy, creamy mouthfeel.
The only Puerto Rican that I've had is Yauco Selecto. It was quite nice, with a heavy body, low acidity, and a nice spiciness.
The number 1 producer of coffee in the world, and competing with Colombia for the position of number 1 exporter of coffee. Most of the coffee Brazil produces is for the mass market (Brazilian "milds") but there is some good coffee produced there. At its best, it has a heavy, syrupy body with a bit of a tobacco flavor. Makes a nice component for an espresso blend.
Colombia and Brazil jockey for the position of number 1 coffee exporter. While Colombia produces some good coffee (with beautiful, large beans) it is mostly over-rated.
Kona is the most well-known of the Hawaiian regions. It is pretty pricey and mostly over-rated, but every now and then there's an amazing lot, with low acidity, nice body, buttery mouthfeel with a subtle cashew flavor.
Most of the good coffee from Java comes from the five government estates: Blawan, Kayumas, Jampit, Pancoer, and Tugosari. Heavy body and a nice spiciness. Great in an espresso blend, or straight in a french press.
Sumatra at its best has low acidity, heavy body, and a strong, earthy element to its flavor profile.
Sulawesi has low acidity, heavy body, and a fat, buttery mouthfeel. It also often has a strong earthiness, similar to Sumatra. It can also be a very pretty coffee, with large beans and multiple shades of deep brown in the same load.
Bright, grapefruit-like floral acidity. Medium body. The intense grapefruit acidity make it a bit of an acquired taste, but once you've acquired it, you can't get it anywhere else. Very nice cup.
Also serves as a nice top-end for complex blends.
I had some organic Uganda for the first time last year (fall 2003). It had the character of a decent Kenya, some nice grapefruity floral acidity and medium body.
African and Arabian coffee used to be known for being shipped out of the Yemeni port of Mocha, which led to the varietal names that are often seen in coffee shops, such as "Arabian Mocha Sanani" and "Arabian Mocha Matari". Some incredible coffee comes from there, with wild berry florals and chocolate undertones. I named my cat Matari after the coffee, which, according to Philippe Jobin in "Coffees Produced Throughout the World", is wild, small, and valuable.
The birthplace of coffee. Some Ethiopians, such as Yirgacheffe and Sidamo, are known for their clean, lemony floral acidity. Others, such as Harrar, are similar to Yemeni coffee, with wild, sweet berry florals and a hint of chocolate. Either way, some amazingly good coffee.